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Archaeology
 

 
 
The Seven Wonders of the World are works of art and architecture regarded by ancient Greeks and Romans as the most extraordinary structures of antiquity during their time. 

"I have gazed on the walls of impregnable Babylon, along which chariots may race, and on the Zeus by the banks of the Alphaeus. I have seen the Hanging Gardens and the Colossus of Helios, the great man-made mountains of the lofty pyramids, and the gigantic tomb of Mausolus. But when I saw the sacred house of Artemis that towers to the clouds, the others were placed in the shade, for the sun himself has never looked upon its equal outside Olympus."

—Antipater; Greece, 130 B.C.
 
I.  The Great Pyramid 
"Man fears time. But time fears the Pyramids. The Pyramids of Egypt, built in Giza during the 3rd millennium BC, are the oldest of the seven wonders and the only ones remaining intact today.
Pyramids are permanent structures built by some ancient civilizations and found mainly in Egypt, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru.  The Egyptian pyramids have four sloping sides that meet at a point at the top; the New World pyramids have four sloping sides and a flat top.  The Egyptian pyramids, built from about 2700 BC to about 1000 BC, served as royal tombs.  In the Americas, pyramids were constructed from 1200 BC until AD 1519 and were used for military defense and as platforms for temples and palaces. Some also included tombs.  The most famous group of Egyptian pyramids are at Giza, near Cairo. The largest, the Great Pyramid, was built as a tomb for the Pharaoh Khufu and is one of the Seven Wonders of the World.  The remains of about 70 pyramids can be seen in Egypt and the Sudan.  Follow the links below to go to more information on pyramids of Egypt. 
The earliest American complex, built about 1200 BC, is at the Olmec site of La Venta in Tabasco, Mexico.  Follow the links below to go to more information on pyramids of America.
 II.  The Hanging Gardens 
of Babylon 
(Babylon, Iraq; 689 B.C.), built by the King Nebuchadnezzar II for one of his wives in hopes of quieting her pining for her homeland. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were a mountainlike series of planted terraces. 
Babylon, an ancient city, was a major city of the ancient world, located 90 km (56 mi) south of present-day Baghdad, Iraq.  About 2200 BC, Babylon was known as the site of a temple, and during the 21st century BC it was subject to the nearby city of Ur.  Babylon became an independent city-state by 1894 BC, when the Amorite Sumu-abum founded a dynasty there.  This dynasty reached its high point in the 18th century BC under Hammurabi.  In 1595 BC, the city was captured by Hittites, and it later came under the control of the Kassite dynasty (1590?-1155 BC).  The Kassites expanded Babylon into the country of Babylonia and made the city the religious and administrative center of this kingdom.
 
From the late 8th century BC, until Nabopolassar expelled the Assyrians between 626 and 615 BC, the city was part of the Assyrian Empire.  Nabopolassar founded the neo-Babylonian dynasty, and his son Nebuchadnezzar II expanded the kingdom. In 539 BC Cyrus the Great incorporated Babylonia into the newly founded Persian Empire.  Alexander the Great captured the city in 330 BC.  Later it was used as a capital by the Seleucid dynasty set up by Alexander's successors.  In the early 3rd century BC most of Babylon's population was moved to a new capital, and the city almost disappeared before the coming of Islam in the 7th century AD.
 
Babylon is best known for Esagila, the temple of Marduk; Etemenanki, a seven-storied ziggurat; and the Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, which Nebuchadnezzar II built for his wife.  Ziggurat, a temple-tower, was the principal form of religious building in ancient Mesopotamia.  Ziggurats were built from the 4th millennium BC to 600 BC.  Constructed of mud brick, they rose in stepped stages to a small temple or sanctuary at the peak.  The most famous ziggurat was that of Etemenanki (popularly associated with the Tower of Babel) at the temple of Marduk in Babylon.  The best preserved ruins are those of the ziggurat of Nanna at Ur, built during the 2nd millennium BC.
III.  The Statue of Zeus
in the Great Temple 
of the Sacred Grove 
(Olympia, Greece; 437 B.C.).  With flesh of ivory, a robe of gold, and a throne of jewels, it was created by Greek sculptor Phidias.  Pheidias' statue inspired Epictetus to write: "Go see it, for it would be a misfortune to have died without doing so!
Phidias (lived 5th century BC), a Greek sculptor of the classical period, was also famed as an architect and painter.  He was born in Attica.  Knowledge of his art depends on the statements of ancient writers because none of his original work is believed to have survived.  Athenian statesman Pericles gave Phidias his first commission, for statues to decorate Athens, and made him general superintendent of all public works.  Phidias directed the construction of both the Parthenon and the Propylaea, the monumental entrance to the Acropolis.  He created the gold and ivory statue of the goddess Athena that stood in the Parthenon.  His colossal statue of the god Zeus at Olympia was considered Phidias's masterpiece.
IV.  The Temple of Artemis  Mother Goddess 
(Ephesus, Turkey; 360 B.C.) was located at Ephesus, in Greece.  Artemis, known also as Diana, was the most revered and powerful goddess of Asia.  Her sacred house at Ephasus inspired Philon to write, some 300 years later, "He who has laid eyes on it once will be convinced that the world of the immortal gods has moved from the heaven to earth." 
Artemis, in Greek mythology, was one of the principal goddesses. She was also the counterpart of the Roman goddess Diana.  The daughter of Leto and the god Zeus, Artemis was the twin sister of the god Apollo.  She was the goddess of hunting, wild animals, childbirth, nature, and the harvest.  As the moon goddess, she was sometimes identified with the goddesses Selene and Hecate.  Artemis was traditionally the protector of youth, especially young women.
V.  The Mausoleum 
at Halicarnassus 
(Halicarnassus, Turkey; 353 B.C.) after the death of Mausolus of Caria .  His wife Artemesia's grief was such that she then drank his ground-up ashes, after placing them in wine, then she built him a monumental marble tomb beyond imagination. 
A mausoleum is a large sepulchral monument containing a chamber for funeral urns or
coffins.  The name is derived from the tomb erected at Halicarnassus (now Bodrum, Turkey) to King Mausolus of Caria, who lived in the 4th century BC.  It was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.  Perhaps the most renowned mausoleum is the 17th-century Taj Mahal in Gra, India.
VI.   The Colossus of Rhodes (Rhodes, Greece; 280 B.C.) invokes the giant bronze statue of the Greek sun god Helios, as it stood with feet bestriding the harbor, as ships sailed beneath it. 
Helios, in Greek mythology, was an ancient sun god.  He was the son of the Titans Hyperion and Thea.  Every day he rode his golden chariot across the sky, giving light to gods and mortals.  Helios alone could control the chariot's horses; his son Phaëthon was killed when he tried to drive them.  The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was a representation of Helios.  He is often identified with the god Apollo.
VII.   The Pharos of Alexandria (Alexandria, Egypt; 270 B.C.), once located in Alexandria, Egypt, was a famous ancient lighthouse.  Nautical excavation in the harbor at Alexandria have revealed structures that may be part of this ancient wonder.
   

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